The tourists opted to play three spinners, including Gareth Batty; selected in his first test since 2005. They also went with Ben Duckett to open the batting alongside Captain Alistair Cook and Gary Ballance at four, leaving no place for Haseeb Hameed.
After winning the toss and electing to bat, England's top order crumbled as they slumped to 21-3 after 18-year-old debutant Mehedi Hasan took the first of his five wickets. removing Duckett for 14.
Shakib Al Hasan then got Cook for only four with only 18 runs on the board. The pressure was ramped up by the hosts when Mehedi trapped Ballance LBW for just one to leave him with impressive figures in his first spell in test cricket with 2-13 in ten overs.
Joe Root looked to have complete control of his innings and heading to a half century before that man Mehedi removed him caught behind for a breezy 40.
Moeen survives multiple scares to reach fifty
Coming in at number five, Ali's innings was scuppered by reviews and he could have been given out for just one had the hosts opted to review an LBW shout, that would have been given out.
In the first over after lunch, he was given out twice before reviews saved him and dismissed three times in total, with replays showing otherwise. He went onto reach his fifty with a six off Mehedi; who was in the pick of the action yet again. Ali was eventually out for 68, caugh behind off Mehedi.
Shakib got Ben Stokes for 18 before Bairstow surpassed 2000 test runs and 1000 test runs in a calendar year in an enthralling and modern knock of 52, before Mehedi claimed his fifth wicket of the innings to end with impressive figures of 5 for 64 runs.
Chris Woakes battled to 36 not out and Adil Rashid also ended the day not out for six as England will look to edge towards 300 on day two and it is yet to be seen how competitive that score will turn out to be.