Heading to Visakhapatnam tied at 0-0 following the draw in Rajkot, the hosts found themselves 22-2 after losing both openers inside the opening five overs before a 226-run partnership between centurions Virat Kohli and Cheteshwar Pujara put them in firm control of the contest.
Kohli ended the day unbeaten on 151 alongside Ravi Ashwin (1*) after both Pujara (119) and Ajinkya Rahane (23) had fallen in the final session of the day to the returning James Anderson (3-44) who impressed on a flat deck.
Openers fall as England make fast start
The all-important toss fell India's way and after they made the obvious decision to bat first, they did not make the start they will have desired. As one of two changes to the Indian side, KL Rahul lasted just five deliveries before he was on his way back to the changing room.
Replacing Gautum Gambhir, Rahul edged behind a ball from Stuart Broad into the hands of Ben Stokes at third-slip for a duck. The other change to the home side saw Jayant Yadav awarded his Test debut in place of Amit Mishra who had struggled somewhat in Rajkot.
Just three overs later, England had their second wicket, with Anderson making an impact on his return by finding the edge of Murali Vijay's bat to give Stokes his second catch of the morning.
It was then down to Kohli and Pujara to see their side towards lunch, and they did just that with the score taken on to 92-2 at the first interval of the day's play.
Double-century partnership hands India the initiative
After their fast start, England had to watch on as India's in-form middle-order duo put them to the sword.
A dominant afternoon session saw the hosts add more than 100 runs at a very good rate as Alastair Cook struggled to find a combination of bowlers who could stem the flow of runs.
Kohli did offer up one chance when he was on 56, edging a pull down to deep-fine leg, yet he was let off due to Adil Rashid shelling the opportunity and England were made to pay.
After a dog had intruded the field and caused a slightly early tea break, India were soon back on their way and both batsmen passed through to three-figures. Pujara went to 100 with a crushing six off of Rashid for his third century in three matches, while Kohli reached the landmark from 154 deliveries.
Anderson picks up late double scalp, yet Kohli remains unbeaten
Moments after the Indian captain went past 100, he lost his partner with Pujara becoming the second batsman to edge Anderson behind with Jonny Bairstow taking a smart catch to remove the former Derbyshire and Yorkshire overseas star for an excellent 119.
Kohli continued on his merry way, looking at ease throughout his batting masterclass despite England starting to gain some kind of control on proceedings.
With just two overs left in the day, England made the unusual decision to take the new ball but it paid off in spades with Anderson securing his third wicket of the day thanks to a sloppy shot from Rahane who was once again caught by Bairstow.
Kohli then went through to his 150, with Ashwin helping him to the close as India ended day one on 317-4 and in a strong position to push on, yet England will be happy with their efforts in both the morning and evening sessions in Vizag.