The Reds battled the heat and humidity of Hong Kong against Ronald de Boer and ran out 2-0 winners thanks to strikes from second-half substitutes Dominic Solanke and Divock Origi.
The win, in their third friendly of the summer, means they will face Leicester City in Saturday's final of the pre-season tournament after the Foxes beat West Bromwich Albion on penalties.
Liverpool captain Henderson praised the patience of his team-mates as they were forced to wait for the breakthrough despite controlling proceedings against the South London outfit.
Liverpool team "delighted" with another game, says skipper
Speaking to Sky Sports afterwards, Henderson insisted that it was "a good run-out" for Liverpool and insisted that they "knew it would be a difficult game" against "a good team with a new manager."
He explained: "It was a good test for us. I thought we were patient and managed to score a couple of good goals. It was a good game in the end."
On his own personal fitness, Henderson added: "I feel better each game. Today again I felt as though I felt much better than the previous two. I've been working hard in training like all the other lads so I feel good. We've still got a few weeks left of pre-season, so hopefully I can keep going on and on."
The skipper joked that he and his team-mates "were over the moon" that the weather remained dry after a few days of torrential rain, admitting it "might have been touch and go" whether the game would go ahead due to the conditions.
He insisted that Liverpool were "delighted to play some football and get some minutes in" and said that the pitch, despite its torn-up appearance, was "fine" and "okay" to play on.
We need to have a squad our size, says Henderson
Liverpool utilised 21 different players at the Hong Kong Stadium, making 10 changes before the 50th minute with only goalkeeper Simon Mignolet lasting the full 90 minutes.
But there was no discernible difference in performance between the two different line-ups, with the Reds' second-half eleven maintaining the control and tempo of their first-half team.
Henderson insisted that the competition for places is a positive, stating: "We've got a lot of games so everybody's pushing each other to try and get into that first eleven. As the manager keeps saying, it's not just about the players that start, it's about the whole squad and being ready to come in if you're not starting. That's the biggest thing for us as a team."
He explained that the Reds boss has "reiterated" that he believes in the squad he currently amidst anxiety of the lack of high-profile summer signings, which Henderson says gives them "plenty of confidence to go out and perform."
"You can see that in the performances we've put on," the England international continued, insisting that the Liverpool team "work hard for each other" and that their focus is "about the whole squad and not about individual players."
Henderson noted that it is "good at a top club" to have "competition for places", suggesting that injuries are inevitable and that Liverpool "need to have a squad big enough to cope with that."
He further said: "Everybody's fighting, everybody's enjoying it and hopefully we're going to have a successful season."
Henderson: New signings both "brilliant"
Among the most impressive performers for Jürgen Klopp's side were summer signings Mohamed Salah and Solanke.
On club-record signing Salah, Henderson insisted that the Egyptian has "been brilliant since he came in" and on his performance, declared: "First-half we was running backwards, forwards, getting the ball back for us and causing havoc up the other end."
The Reds' No.14 also lauded goalscorer Solanke for being "brilliant in training" and said that his display "showed what he's all about."
He praised the teenager for scoring "a good goal" and, when asked whether he had seen much of the England U20 international for the national team, insisted that he "looks as though he can get a goal."
"He's been very good in training, he seems like a good lad and he has been working very hard," Henderson insisted. "He'll be pushing to get in the first-team."