Jota's strike, which went through Rui Patricio on the stroke of half-time, gave Liverpool the win, but was overshadowed by an injury to the Wolves goalkeeper, who collided with Conor Coady late on.
The defeat was Wolves' first at home in the league since their Black Country Derby reverse in January, while Liverpool picked up their third away league win in four games.
Story of the match
Nuno Espirito Santo made just one change to his starting lineup, as Willy Boly replaced Leander Dendoncker in defence, while Jurgen Klopp stuck with the same side that beat RB Leipzig in the UEFA Champions League last Wednesday.
The first half began at break-neck speed, despite Wolves' tendency to start slow, and one of its biggest talking points came after just two minutes. Alisson spilled Adama Traore's cross at the feet of Nelson Semedo, who was taken out by the Brazilian before he could latch onto the loose ball, but Wolves' penalty claims were waved away by Craig Pawson and VAR.
Semedo then should have given Wolves the lead from open play. The Portuguese right wing-back was picked out by Traore inside the box and then cut inside the defender, but his shot was stopped by Alisson.
It was Liverpool's turn to have a chance just minutes later. Sadio Mane was brilliantly fed through by Georginio Wijnaldum and took the ball round Patricio, but he was forced wide and smothered by Romain Saiss and Semedo. The game's next chance also fell to Mane, whose free header in the centre of the area went just wide.
After Ruben Neves drove just wide on 45 minutes, Liverpool broke the deadlock with the half's last kick. A devastating counter-attack led to Mane finding Jota, whose left foot shot went through Patricio, who should have kept it out. The goal, which came on Jota's first return to Molineux, was his first since returning from injury last month.
The first chance of the second half fell to Conor Coady, who was picked out in the box following a spell of concerted pressure following a Wolves corner, but the England international's header flew just past the post.
It was a half of few chances, but the hosts dominated the possession. A different choice of pass from Willian Jose could have put Pedro Neto through on goal, while Adama Traore had a try from distance just after the 70 minute mark that was straight at Alisson. Jota then saw his second effort of the game saved by his countryman Patricio.
Liverpool had the ball in the net for a second time with five minutes to go but Mohamed Salah had just strayed offside before he fired into the net. A collision between Coady and Patricio in attempting to stop Salah saw the Wolves goalkeeper stretchered off with an apparent serious head injury after a 12 minute stoppage, meaning John Ruddy made just his second Premier League appearance for the club as a concussion substitute.
The lengthy amount of stoppage time saw Wolves go close to equalising. Traore's deflected cross met substitute Fabio Silva in front of goal but the ball hit his shoulder, and the effort went safely into the hands of Alisson.
Will rules be tweaked after Patricio injury?
While Diogo Jota's winner was the main talking point as far as the football is concerned, the game was completely overshadowed by the injury suffered by Rui Patricio.
Mohamed Salah was put through on goal by Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain and finished over Patricio who then collided with Coady, leading to the Portugal number one suffering a serious head injury and being stretchered off after lengthy treatment. After Salah put the ball in the net, two or three seconds after the pass was played, he was flagged offside.
This is the first instance of a serious injury happening to a Premier League player that really didn't need to occur. Many questions will now be asked of the English game's governing bodies to see if assistant referees need to keep their flag down when a clear offside has taken place.
As for Wolves, their bad luck with injuries continues. Following serious injuries to Jonny, Raul Jimenez and now Patricio in the last seven months, Nuno will desperate for this campaign to end.