The hosts backed up their dismal display with the bat against New Zealand earlier in the summer by collapsing to just 183 all out, captain Joe Root being the only Englishman to show any resistance to the Indian attack scoring 64 in an innings which also saw him become England's all time leading run scorer.
The tourists bowlers ran riot on a green pitch in Nottingham with all ten batters falling to pace and Mohammed Shami also picking up three wickets.
Rohit Sharma and K.L Rahul were also able to survive the final 13 over of the day for the visitors, reaching 21-0 and leaving them trailing by 162 runs going into day two.
Bumrah and Shami cause carnage as India make ideal start to series
With the sun shining at the start of play in Nottingham captain Root elected to bat after winning the toss, a decision that immediately looked under question when opener Rory Burns fell lbw to Bumrah for a duck inside the first over.
The Indian quicks consistently found ways of making the ball swing throughout the day and were able to see of the remainder of the Three Lions shaky top order for little damage with Zak Crawley falling for 27 and Dom Sibley 18.
The wicket of Sibley saw Jonny Bairstow, playing his first home Test since 2019, join Root at the crease and led to the only period of the day in which England had any semblance of control over proceedings.
The two Yorkshireman cautiously managed to bring the total up to 138-3 before Shami dismissed Bairstow lbw for 29 with a superb seaming delivery the last ball before tea.
After the break England's batting completely collapsed, losing six wickets for just 22 runs with Dan Lawrence, Jos Buttler and Ollie Robinson all returning to the pavilion without troubling the scorers and leaving their side 160-9.
Sam Curran did mange bring a small smile to the faces of the home fans for a short time by hitting four fours and a six in a quick fire 27 eventually bringing the score up to 183 before partner Anderson left him stranded when he was comprehensively bowled by a brutal yorker from Bumrah.
As poor as the English batsman were, however, the Indian bowlers as a unit had a stunning day out.
They were completely relentless on their line and lengths all day and threatened to take a wicket with virtually every ball, Bumrah, 4-46 and Shami, 3-28, being the standouts.
Return of first choice players fails to mend English batting woes
Much had been written about the quality of England's batting after they lost their first home Test series for seven years against New Zealand in June.
After only managing to reach 300 once against the Kiwi's many in the England camp had hoped that the return of a host of regular players into the squad to play the Men in blue would resolve the issue, but, as today proved this was not the case.
Buttler, Bairstow, Curran and Robinson were all brought back in, in an attempt to at least give the batting line-up more depth but to no avail.
Other than the captain not one member of Roots side looked comfortable on a challenging wicket in Nottingham.
The top order regularly looked rushed, out of form and out of their depth against the quality of India's bowlers with a red ball and the lack of preparation for the series badly showed.
With four days still to go it is already difficult to see how England will be able to achieve victory in this opening Test.