Veteran seam bowler James Anderson ripped through the Men in Blue's top order as a brutal performance from England's bowlers saw the tourists all out for one of their worst ever totals in Test cricket.
The host's batsman added to the tourists misery finishing 120-0 at the close of play with both openers, Haseeb Hameed and Rory Burns, passing 50 and giving the Three Lions a lead of 42 at then end of a remarkable day.
English bowlers run riot in Leeds
When Indian captain Virat Kohli elected to bat after winning the toss at the beginning of the day, England fans could have been forgiven for dreading that the day would turn out similarly to that of the opening day of the Lord's Test in which the tourists reached an imposing 276-3 by the close of play.
However, when Anderson managed to beat the edge of Rohit Sharma's bat with the very first ball of the day it quickly became apparent that this would be a much more enjoyable day for the home supporters.
Anderson, 39, once again proved that age is just a number and had the ball swinging right from the off under the clouds at Headingley.
And it did not take long for the rewards to come for the Lancashire man with K.L Rahul edging behind for a duck off just the fifth ball of the day and out-of-form number three Chestwar Pujara also nicking off for just one run shortly after.
The biggest moment of the morning came, however, when Anderson found the edge of captain Kohli for seven, sparking scenes of jubilation among the England players and fans alike and leaving India 21-3 with an hour played.
It was then Ollie Robinson's turn to get in on the fun with the Sussex seamer picking up the wickets of Ajinkya Rahane and Rishab Pant either side of the lunch break with the pair also edging behind and making Jos Buttler just the second wicketkeeper in the history of Test cricket to be involved in all of the first five dismissals in an innings.
The chaos then reached a new level with India losing four wickets without scoring a run - collapsing from 67-5 to 67-9 in the space of five deliveries.
With Rohit Sharma and Mohammed Shami falling to the superb Craig Overton and Ravindra Jadeja and Jasprit Bumrah to Sam Curran.
The end of the tourists brief innings came not to long after with Mohammed Siraj fittingly edging the ball to slip off the bowling of Overton and the Indians headed back to the pavilion with just 78 runs on the board - their ninth lowest ever score in Test cricket.
Anderson was without doubt the standout for England, blowing through the visitors top order and finishing with the outstanding figures of 3-6 - he was also well supported, though, by Overton who finished with 3-14 on his return to the Test side.
Hameed and Burns cap off England's perfect day
Much has been written about England's top order batting of late but, with the pressure off, the new look opening pair of Burns and Hameed immediately began to dominate the demoralised Indian bowlers.
After surviving a small scare in the first over when Hameed almost edged the ball onto his own stumps, the openers never looked troubled on a pitch which earlier in the day had seen utter chaos unfold upon it.
The England fans were treated to the unusual sight of their top two batting at a good tempo, rotating the strike well and even playing a number of glorious drives through the covers.
24-year-old Hameed in particular, opening for England for the first time since 2016, catching the eye with a pair of powerful back foot cuts for four off consecutive balls against Ishant Sharma.
The Three Lions total dominance of the day was then compounded when the openers breezed past the Indian score of 78 making it the first time since boxing day 2010 that England had surpassed an oppositions first innings total with all ten wickets still in hand.
By the close of play they had reached 120-0 giving Root's side a lead of 42 with Hameed not out on 60 and Burns 42.