Gabriel Jesus found the bottom right corner with an excellent finish which was the last kick of the match and made it 4-1.
Sterling scored the third goal after a wonderful piece of play from City. Ilkay Gungodan found space down the left and zipped a low ball for Sterling to tap the ball into the net.
Foden gave Guardiola's side the lead less than 15 minutes into the game. Again Cancelo was involved, this time with a precise low-drilled cross along the face of goal for Foden to tap-in.
Brugge showed fight and responded well to going behind when they equalised through a John Stones own-goal. They had opportunities to grab something from the game in the second half, but ultimately their finishing wasn't clinical enough and City's quality showed.
Story of the game
Brugge started the game with a real sense of composure and were passing the ball around nicely before City found their groove.
City's first opportunity of the night came when Cancelo elegantly chipped Simon Mignolet but fortunately for the former Liverpool goalkeeper, Cancelo's effort struck the post.
But City came straight back at Brugge and Mahrez found Cancelo out on the left-wing. Cancelo drove the ball along the 18-yard-box which found Foden at the back post for a simple tap-in.
Brugge came straight back at City and equalised two minutes later. Hans Vanaken's volley was excellently saved by Ederson, but Brugge were quickest to react. Charles De Ketelaere lobbed the ball back into the box and it deflected off Bernardo Silva onto Stones' face and Ederson couldn't prevent it from going into his own goal.
Throughout the first half, the same issues City have bumped into in the past crept up once again. They were dominant in possession but failed to use it to their advantage as they managed just the one shot on target (Foden's goal).
Less than ten minutes into the second half and City found themselves ahead once more. This time it came after De Ketelaere wasted a glorious opportunity to give the Belgian side the lead. City went up the other end with Cancelo who clipped a beautiful ball to the back post for Mahrez to head past Mignolet.
The substitute, Sterling, managed to get on the scoresheet for the first time since August. After an impressive showing in the 2020 European Championship, Sterling has struggled to find form this season and has had a limited amount of playing time.
It was Gundogan's cross that found him at the back post and he stroked it into the back of the net with ease.
Another City sub got themselves involved as Jesus slotted home in injury time to top things off. It was a lovely timed finish from the Brazilian striker.
For City, it all but confirms their spot in the knockout stages. It would take some capitulation to not go through as they are five points ahead of third place, Brugge.